What is Clinker? The Relationship Between Clinker Phases and Grinding Parameters

Clinker is the primary material of cement, and it is called as semi-finished product. Clinker is a granulated material made of raw meal powder obtained by grinding limestone and clay together by sintering the raw meal in a rotary furnace at 1400°C-1500°C degrees. Produced clinker’s mineralogical structure effects clinker’s grinding energy. And it determines the […]

Cement Properties: What is Permeability? How to Prevent it?


Permeability is an important parameter that has a direct effect on the useful life of cemented systems. Permeability, which is related to the structure and amount of the voids inside the concrete, decreases durability of the structure against chemical attacks such as sulphate and chlorine. In order to provide durability in concrete, it is quite […]

Pouring Concrete in Cold Weather: Key Considerations


Pouring concrete in cold weather may cause problems with concrete strength and durability. In this article, we will discuss with you what kind of precautions can be taken when pouring concrete in cold weather, and all of the factors that must be taken into consideration. Six Precautions to Take Prior to Pouring Concrete in Cold […]

What is hydration? How Does Cement Hydration Take Place?


A few hours after the concrete components are mixed, concrete components form a solid structure that loses its plastic properties.  The reason for this is the chemical reaction between cement and water known as hydration. The cement paste which was initially soft plastic, becomes less plastic as time progresses and solidifies and hardens. The chemical […]

How to Stop Efflorescence in Concrete?

Efflorescence in concrete occurs when the calcium hydroxide and salts in concrete dissolve and come to the surface of the concrete. This creates a thin white layer of crystals on the surface of the concrete. Efflorescence not only affects the durability of concrete but its aesthetic appeal as well. Discover how to stop efflorescence in […]

Alkali Silica Reaction in Concrete: Solutions


What is alkali silica reaction and how does it occur? How does it affect concrete durability? How can it be prevented? How is damage assessment conducted for alkali silica reaction? In this article, you will find everything you need to know about Alkali Silica Reaction. What is Concrete Durability? The ability of building materials and […]

What is Sulfate Attack on Concrete?


In the 2000s, the perception of concrete began to change. In addition to focusing on high strength, the production of concrete with long-term durability has started to gain importance. As long as concrete is in service, it must maintain the required strength and be durable enough to withstand both chemical and physical effects. Concrete with […]